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Most of us will agree that contracts are essential. They protect your interests and protect the interests of the other party (in most cases). Contract ambiguity is an area that many people don’t understand well but can have major consequences.

In this guide, we’re pulling back the covers on contract ambiguity. You’ll learn what it is, the major drawbacks it can create, common causes, and how to avoid it.

Let’s get started.

Understanding contract ambiguity

Contract ambiguity refers to situations where the terms and provisions of a contract are unclear, vague, or open to multiple interpretations. In other words, it occurs when the language used in a contract is not precise or specific enough to provide a clear understanding of the parties’ rights, obligations, and the scope of their agreement.

Ambiguity in contracts can arise from various sources, including poorly drafted clauses, inconsistent terminology, or missing details. It can lead to disputes, disagreements, and litigation between the parties involved in the contract.

Common forms of contract ambiguity include:

  1. Semantic Ambiguity: This occurs when the words and phrases used in the contract have multiple meanings or interpretations. For example, a term like “reasonable time” can be subjective and open to different interpretations.
  2. Syntactic Ambiguity: Syntactic ambiguity arises from the structure and grammar of the contract. It can occur when sentence structure or punctuation makes it unclear which part of a sentence modifies which term or provision.
  3. Contextual Ambiguity: Sometimes, the context in which a contract is created can introduce ambiguity. For instance, if a contract refers to external documents or industry-specific terms without defining them, it can lead to confusion.
  4. Extrinsic Ambiguity: Extrinsic ambiguity occurs when external factors or events affect the interpretation of a contract. This could include changes in law or circumstances that were not anticipated when the contract was drafted.

Importance of Clear and Precise Contracts:

Clear and precise contracts are crucial in business and legal relationships for several reasons:

  1. Legal Certainty: Clarity in contracts reduces the risk of disputes and litigation. When parties understand their rights and responsibilities, they are less likely to interpret terms differently and end up in court.
  2. Enforceability: Courts are more likely to enforce clear and well-drafted contracts because they provide evidence of the parties’ intentions. Ambiguous contracts may be subject to varying interpretations, making them harder to enforce.
  3. Risk Mitigation: Precise contracts help in identifying and mitigating risks upfront. Parties can address potential issues and contingencies in the contract, reducing the likelihood of future disagreements.
  4. Efficiency: Clear contracts streamline the negotiation and performance of agreements. When parties have a shared understanding of their obligations, they can work more efficiently to meet their respective commitments.
  5. Protecting Relationships: Ambiguity in contracts can strain business relationships and erode trust. Clear and fair contracts help maintain positive working relationships between parties.
  6. Compliance: Clear contracts make it easier for parties to understand and adhere to applicable laws and regulations, reducing the risk of unintentional non-compliance.
  7. Cost Savings: contract ambiguity may lead to costly legal battles. Clear and precise contracts can save parties time and money by minimizing the need for legal intervention.

Contract ambiguity is a significant contractual risk that can lead to legal disputes and financial losses. To avoid such issues, parties should prioritize the drafting of clear and precise contracts that leave little room for interpretation. Consulting with legal professionals or experts in contract drafting can be beneficial in ensuring the clarity and enforceability of contracts.

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Drawbacks of Contract Ambiguity

Contract ambiguity can have several drawbacks, which can lead to various negative consequences. Here are some of the key drawbacks of contract ambiguity:

A. Disputes and Litigation:

Ambiguous contracts often give rise to disagreements between parties regarding the interpretation of terms and obligations. This can lead to costly legal disputes and litigation as parties seek clarity and resolution through the courts.

B. Unclear Responsibilities:

When contract terms are unclear, it becomes challenging for parties to understand their roles, responsibilities, and expectations. This can result in confusion, inefficiency, and potential breaches of contract.

C. Financial Loss:

Contract ambiguity can lead to financial losses for both parties. Unclear terms may result in one party not receiving what they expected or not being able to fulfill their obligations, which can lead to monetary damages and lost opportunities.

D. Reputation Damage:

Ambiguous contracts can harm the reputation of the parties involved. If one party believes they were treated unfairly due to unclear contract terms, it can lead to negative publicity and damage the reputation of the other party.

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E. Resource Drain:

Resolving disputes arising from contract ambiguity consumes valuable time and resources. You may need to hire legal counsel, engage in negotiations, and potentially go through lengthy court proceedings, diverting resources away from other productive activities.

F. Missed Opportunities:

Ambiguity can prevent you from fully leveraging the contract to your advantage. If the contract doesn’t clearly define rights, benefits, or opportunities, you may miss out on potential gains.

G. Loss of Trust and Relationship Damage:

When contracts are ambiguous, it can erode trust between the parties. This erosion of trust may extend beyond the specific contract, damaging the overall business relationship.

H. Legal Costs:

Resolving contract ambiguity through legal means can be expensive. Legal fees, court costs, and other related expenses can add up, further increasing the financial burden on the parties involved.

I. Inefficiency and Delays:

Ambiguity can lead to delays in contract performance as parties try to clarify terms or resolve disputes. This inefficiency can hinder project timelines and affect overall business operations.

Contract ambiguity has numerous major and minor drawbacks that can negatively impact parties involved in contractual relationships. To mitigate these drawbacks, draft clear and precise contracts, seek legal advice when necessary, and prioritize effective communication and understanding between the parties at the outset of the agreement.

Common Causes of Contract Ambiguity

Contract ambiguity can arise from various sources, and it’s essential to identify these causes to prevent potential issues. Here are common causes of contract ambiguity:

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A. Lack of Clarity in Language:

One of the primary causes of contract ambiguity is the use of vague, imprecise, or unclear language in the contract’s clauses and provisions. When terms and obligations are not articulated clearly, it can lead to confusion and differing interpretations.

B. Vague or Incomplete Definitions:

Contracts often include terms that are specific to the industry or context in which they are used. When these terms are not adequately defined within the contract, it can lead to uncertainty about their meaning and application.

C. Contradictory Terms:

Contradictions within the contract, where one part of the agreement appears to conflict with another, can create ambiguity. Such conflicts may be unintentional but can result in disputes over which provision takes precedence.

D. Assumptions and Unstated Expectations:

Parties sometimes make assumptions or have unstated expectations about the contract’s terms and how it will be executed. When these assumptions are not explicitly addressed in the contract, they can lead to disagreements down the line.

The only thing that should be assumed in a contract is that if it’s not explicitly stated then it’s not included. Mutual understanding between you and a third party cannot be enforced in court if it’s not written down.

E. Lack of Specificity:

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Contracts should specify details, such as deadlines, quantities, pricing, contract duration, and performance standards. When these critical details are missing or left vague, it can be challenging to determine each party’s precise obligations.

F. Ambiguous Wording:

The use of ambiguous words or phrases that have multiple interpretations can introduce uncertainty into a contract. Words like “reasonable,” “timely,” or “best efforts” may be subject to differing interpretations.

When in doubt, define what the terms mean. A reasonable timeframe should turn into ‘two to four weeks’ or whatever a reasonable timeframe is. Once it’s in writing, the other party to the agreement can redline the document or negotiate with you about it until you agree.

G. Inconsistent Terminology:

Using different terms or phrases to describe the same concept or obligation throughout the contract can create confusion. Parties may wonder if these terms have distinct meanings or if they are interchangeable.

Tips to Avoid Contract Ambiguity

To avoid contract ambiguity and ensure that contractual agreements are clear, valid, enforceable, and reflect the intentions of the parties involved, consider the following tips:

Use Plain and Specific Language:

  1. Avoid Legal Jargon:

Use plain, everyday language instead of legal jargon. Clear and straightforward language makes it easier for all parties to understand the contract’s terms.

This can be made easier by taking advantage of pre-approved contractual clauses (also known as a clause library). Enlist the help of a legal professional or personally create clauses for common things such as consideration, force majeure, termination, etc. Instead of having to create these clauses from scratch every time, you can just modify the ones in the clause library to fit your needs.  

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  1. Define Technical Terms:

If your contract includes industry-specific or technical terms, provide clear definitions for these terms within the contract or in an attached glossary. Don’t assume that a third party reviewing it will have the same interpretation or understanding as you.

Clearly Define Rights and Obligations:

  1. Specify Deliverables and Timelines:

Clearly outline the products, services, or deliverables expected from each party. Include specific deadlines and milestones to provide a clear timeline for performance.

  1. Address Performance Standards:

Define the quality and performance standards expected from each party. Use measurable criteria whenever possible to reduce ambiguity.

Anticipate Contingencies:

  1. Include Force Majeure Clauses:

Consider including force majeure clauses that outline how unexpected events (e.g., natural disasters, pandemics, or government actions) will be handled, including potential delays or exemptions from performance.

  1. Establish Dispute Resolution Mechanisms:

Clearly define how disputes will be resolved, whether through negotiation, mediation, arbitration, or litigation. Including these mechanisms can help prevent costly legal battles.

Proofread and Review Contracts Thoroughly:

  1. Involve Legal Experts:

Consult with legal professionals or contract attorneys to draft, review, and revise the contract. Legal experts can identify potential pitfalls and ambiguities and ensure legal compliance.

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  1. Seek Input from Stakeholders:

Involve all relevant parties, including key stakeholders and subject matter experts, in the contract drafting and review process. This ensures that the contract accurately reflects the needs and expectations of all involved.

Maintain Clear Communication:

  1. Document All Changes and Amendments:

Keep a record of all changes, amendments, and correspondence related to the contract. This documentation can help resolve disputes and maintain transparency.

  1. Ensure Both Parties Understand and Agree:

Before finalizing the contract, ensure that all parties thoroughly review and understand the terms. Encourage open communication to address any questions or concerns. Make sure that both parties agree to the terms voluntarily and without duress.

Additionally, consider using clear headings, numbered clauses, and bullet points to organize the contract for easy reference. Provide clear instructions for how the contract should be executed and enforced. Regularly review and update contracts as circumstances change to ensure they remain relevant and enforceable.

By following these tips, parties can significantly reduce the risk of contract ambiguity and create contracts that serve as effective tools for managing business relationships and transactions.


Contract ambiguity is a silent poison that can creep up on you at a critical time. Lay the groundwork upfront to protect yourself and your interests down the line.

In this guide, you’ve learned what contract ambiguity is and the forms it can take. You’ve also learned a few useful tips to avoid it.

When drafting future contracts, use the insights gained in this guide to ensure your agreements will be able to hold up to scrutiny.

If you’re looking to automate and streamline your contract and document drafting process, be sure to check out our document automation software DoxFlowy.

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